Saturday, August 6, 2011

Human Anatomy & physiology II Lab Exam 2 Review and Study Guide

Lab 23 Anatomy of Respiratory System
1.   Identify structures listed in Table 23.1 on these models:
  Lung / Heart / Diaphragm model
  Pat (Torso model)

2.  Identify structures listed in Table 23.1 on these specimens
                Larynx, trachea, primary bronchi, lungs
  Pig Larynx / Trachea
                Epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, tracheal rings, trachealis muscle, vocal fold, vestibular fold, arytenoid muscle, arytenoid cartilage

3.  Describe features and functions of each structure listed in Table 23.1.
4.  Differentiate between conducting zone and respiratory zone structures.
5.  Draw and label the histological layers of a cross section of trachea.
6.  List the cell types present within the respiratory membrane.
7.  Diagram the movement of respiratory gases at the respiratory membrane.
8.  Describe the function and movement of mucus.

Lab 24 Respiratory Physiology
1.   Define the Respiratory Volumes and Capacities listed in Tables 24.1 and 24.2.
2.  Write the formulas for the Respiratory Capacities listed in Table 24.2
3.  Demonstrate use of a wet spirometer to measure Tidal Volume, Vital Capacity, Expiratory Reserve Capacities.
4.  Given the values for TV, VC and ERC, calculate Inspiratory Reserve Capacity.
5.  Explain the difference between a respiratory volume and a respiratory capacity.
6.  Describe the effect of increased mucus on respiratory volumes and capacities.
7.  Describe the relationship between pulmonary ventilation and respiration.

Lab 25:  Anatomy of the Digestive System
1.   Identify the structures listed in Tables 25.1 and 25.2 on diagrams and models.  Describe the features and functions of the listed structures.
2.  Models
  Flat model on wall
  Skeletor organs
  Pat (torso model) organs
3.  Specimens
  Cat (esophagus, stomach (fundus, cardia, body, pylorus), pyloric sphincter, duodenum, pancreas, ileum, greater omentum, mesentery, iliocecal valve, cecum, large intestine, liver, gall bladder, cystic duct, bile duct, hepatic portal vein)
4.  List and provide examples of the six processes which contribute to digestion.
5.  Identify and describe the peritoneum, mesenteries and omenta.
6.  Identify these histological layers in a diagram or microscope slides of esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine:  mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa (circular and smooth layers), serous membrane or adventitia.
7.  Describe the functions of these structures:  intestinal villi, plicae circulares.
8.  Diagram a liver lobule.  Include the central vein, sinusoids and bile canaliculi.
9.  Explain the difference between an GI tract organ and an accessory organ.

Lab 26:  Digestive Processes
1.   Organize these enzymes into a table.  Include the food substance it digests, organ that secretes each and the site of chemical digestion. 
Salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, pepsin, chymotrypsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase, pancreatic ribonuclease, pancreatic deoxyribonuclease, brush border enzymes
2.  Define ‘emulsification’ and explain the role of bile in fat emulsification.
3.  List the end products of lipid digestion (lipolysis) and protein digestion.
4.  Explain the role of pH and temperature for optimal enzyme function.
5.  List the enzyme(s) that require a low pH for optimal function.  Describe the advantage of differing function at different pH.
6.  Describe the advantage of the pancreas secreting enzyme precursors rather than active enzymes.

Lab 27:  Anatomy of the Urinary System
1.   Identify these structures in models of the kidney or urinary system: adrenal gland, hilus, ureter, renal pelvis, minor calyces, renal cortex, medullary pyramid, papilla, lobe, renal column, urinary bladder.
2.  Models:
  Large kidney
  Pat (torso model)
3.  Specimens:
  Pig kidney (hilus, ureter, renal pelvis, micor calyx, medullary pyramid, papilla, cortex, renal column, interlobar vessels, arcuate vessels, interlobular (cortical radiate) vessels, lobar vessels)
  Cat (kidney, renal capsule, cortex, medullary pyramids, renal pelvis, ureter, hilus, urinary bladder)
4.  Trace renal blood flow through these blood vessels:  renal artery, segmental artery, lobar artery, interlobar artery, arcuaste artery, interlobular artery (cortical radiate), afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries, interlobular vein (cortical radiate), arcuate vein, lobar vein, renal vein.
5.  Label the blood vessels above on models and diagrams.
6.  Describe the histological layers of these structures:  ureters, urinary bladder, urethra.
7.  Identify these structures within the urinary bladder:  detrusor muscle, rugae, trigone.
8.  Diagram the trigone and label the openings.  Explain the clinical significance of the trigone in urinary tract infections.
9.  Contrast the length of the male and female urethras, and relate the lengths to risk for urinary tract infection.
10.  Label the regions of the male urethra.
11.  Contrast the functions of the internal and external urethral sphincters.
12.  Label these parts of a nephron in a diagram or model:  afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, glomerulus, peritubular capillaries, interlobular artery, interlobular vein, glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle (ascending and descending limbs), collecting ducts

Urinalysis Lab
1.       Summarize the function of a urinalysis.
2.       Describe urinalysis results for a healthy individual using these parameters: color, clarity, smell, pH, presence of glucose, presence of protein, presence of casts.
3.       Interpret the results of a urinalysis given these parameters:  color, clarity, smell, pH, presence of glucose, presence of protein, presence of casts.
4.       Relate the presence of ketones in the urine (ketonuria) to the metabolism of fats.
Lab 28:  Reproductive
1.   Identify the listed structures on these models:
                a.   Male Half Pelvis
                Ductus deferens
                Head of epidydimus
                Corpus cavernosum
                Corpus spongiosum
                Prostatic urethra
                Membranous urethra
                Spongy urethra
                Seminal vesicle
                Prostate gland
                Tail of epidydimus
                Glans of penis
                Urinary bladder

                b.   Female Half Pelvis
                Urinary bladder
                Fundus of uterus
                Ovarian ligament
                Broad ligament
                Uterine tube
                Fimbriae of uterine tube
Ampulla of uterine tube
Round ligament

c.   Embryonic Development Uterus
                Fundus of uterus
                Ovarian ligament
                Primordial follicale
                Primary follicle
                Secondary follicle
                Vesicular follicle
                Corpus luteum
                Corpus albicans
                Fornices of vagina

d.  Skeletor penis
                Corpus spongiosum
                Corpus cavernosum
                Ductus deferens
                Spermatic cord
                Cremaster muscle

2.  Distinguish the following stages of follicles in a diagram and microscope slide of ovary:

3.  Identify the following structures with a follicle:  oocyte, ranulosa cells, antrum
4.  Trace the path of the oocyte from the ovary to its exit during the menstrual phase from the vaginal orifice.  List every structure through which the egg passes.
5.  Describe the function of the corpus luteum.
6.  Explain the fate of the corpus luteum if:
                The oocyte is fertilized and becomes an embryo
                The oocyte is not fertilized
7.  Describe the role of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in pregnancy.
8.  List the phases and events of the Ovarian Cycle.  Include the time frame.
9.  List the phases and events of the Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle.  Include the time frame.
10.  Summarize the role of these hormones in the Ovarian and Uterine cycles:  estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone.
11.  Trace the path of sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the external urethral orifice.  List each structure through which the sperm pass.
12.  Explain the mechanism of these structures in temperature regulation of the testes:  pampiniform plexus, cremaster muscle, dartos muscle.
13.  List two glands that contribute to semen content, and summarize the materials provided by each.

Lab 29:  Genes Affect Anatomy & Physiology
1.   Define the following terms:
                Sex Chromosome
                Incomplete Dominance

2.  Predict the probability of specific genotypes and phenotypes in the offspring by drawing and analyzing a Punnett Square for a dominant / recessive allele.
3.  Predict the probability of specific genotypes and phenotypes in the offspring by drawing and analyzing a Punnett Square for an incomplete dominant allele.
4.  Predict the probability of specific genotypes and phenotypes in the offspring by drawing and analyzing a Punnett Square for a sex-linked trait.
5.  Discuss the effect of multiple alleles for a particular phenotype.
6.  Differentiate the effects of environmental factors versus genotype on a phenotype (e.g. predisposition to developing diabetes). 
7.  Propose a reason that recessive alleles remain present in a population, even when lethal.

Know these structures in new models for Lab Exam 2
Histology of digestive tract model
A esophagus
                Mucosa / epithelium
                Muscularis externa (circular and longitudinal layers)
B.  Stomach
                Mucosa with gastric pits
                Muscularis externa (longitudinal, oblique, circular layers)
                Visceral peritoneum
                Cell types:  peptic cell, parietal cells
C.  Jejunum
                Mucosa with intestinal crypts
                Muscularis externa (circular and longitudinal layers
                Visceral peritoneum
D.  Colon
                Muscularis externa (circular and longitudinal layers)
                Visceral peritoneum
                Goblet cells

Microanatomy of Liver model

Central Vein
Portal canal
Liver lobule
Interlobular bile duct/artery/vein
Dendritic (Kupffer) cell
Terminal bile duct
Liver sinusoids
Bile canaliculi

Intestinal Villi model

Muscularis externa (circular and longitudinal layers)
Goblet cells

Kidney section model
A.       Kidney frontal section
Renal cortex
Renal medulla
Renal artery/vein
Arcuate arteries/veins
Interlobular (cortical radiate) arteries/veins
Afferent arteriole
Renal pelvis
Minor calyces
Major calyces
collecting ducts
loops of Henle
proximal/distal convoluted tubules
renal corpuscle
renal pyramids
renal columns

B.      Nephron
Renal cortex
Renal corpuscle
Proximal/ddistal convoluted tubules
Loops of Henle
Collecting duct
Arcuate artery/vein
Interlobular (cortical radiate) artery/vein
Afferent/efferent arterioles

C.      Renal Corpuscle
Afferent/efferent arterioles
Glomerular capsule
Proximal/distal convoluted tubule

Liver and Gallbladder model
Lobes of liver
Inverior vena cava
Hepatic veins
Portal vein
Hepatic artery
Cystic duct
 Round ligament
Falciform ligament

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